I would say the defining factors in Judeo-Christianity are a fundamental dualism and the concept of sin.
The dualism is presented immediately in genesis 3:5 "For God knows that in the day you eat from it your eyes will be opened, and you will be like God, knowing good and evil." (I use the NASB unless I'm looking for poetry, in which case the KJV is unbeatable)
Knowing good and evil is the state in which man falls from his ideal, is cast out from the garden, and knows sin. This is confusing for many as they cannot fathom why discernment of good and evil is sinful. We spend all our lives trying to discern good from evil. Consider the first verses of the Hsin Hsin Ming:
The Great Way is not difficult
for those who have no preferences.
When love and hate are both absent
everything becomes clear and undisguised.
Make the smallest distinction, however
and heaven and earth are set infinitely apart.
It's the same thing. From the Tao Te Ching:
When people see some things as beautiful,
other things become ugly.
When people see some things as good,
other things become bad.
Tao1 is trying to get at Nietzsche's point about both Buddhism and Christianity being decadent religions because they both deny the world instead of affirming it. Being neither a Buddhist nor a Christian I don't have a dog in this fight, and my worldview is strongly informed by both traditions. But it's more informed by Advaita and nondual philosophy in general which causes me to interpret the teachings completely differently from a dualist.
Treating everything as a dream liberates. - Nisargadatta